Indus Valley Civilization Study Notes

Ancient Harappan Civilization - WBCS Guruji





Dear Students,

Today WBCS Guruji share with you about what is the history of Indus valley civilization? and it's the timeline, time period, definition, facts, rivers, map, religion, culture, language, art, agriculture, decline, cities, economy, seals, trade, architecture, books, study notes, lesson plan and so on.







So let's start...




    what is the history of Indus valley civilization?


Indus Valley Civilization was originally called Harappan Civilization after the discovery of this site. Indus Valley Civilization was one of the four earliest civilizations of the world.


  1. Mesopotamia Civilization
  2. Egypt Civilization
  3. China Civilization
  4. Indus Valley Civilization



The Indus or Harappan Civilization is older than the Chalcolithic culture. Indus Valley Civilization or  Harappan Culturecovered parts of Punjab, Haryana, Sindh, Baluchistan, Gujarat, Rajasthan, and West Uttar Pradesh.





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    About Indus Valley Civilization-


A red sandstone naked male Torso has been found. It is identified with Rigveda. other finding stone symbol pf lingam and yoni, Virgin goddess wooden mortar, box, dice nude dancing female, etc. In the Granaries of Indus Valley Civilization, there were two tows and six granaries, the combined floor space of these granaries had the same area as the Great Granary ar Mohenjodaro.





    Town Planning of Indus Valley Civilization-


The Indus Valley Civilization or Harappan Civilization culture was distinguished by its system of town planning. The towns were divided into two parts. Upperparts of Citadel and Lower parts. One of the remarkable things about the arrangement of the houses in the cities is that they followed the grid system.





    Drainage System of Indus Valley Civilization-


The Drainage system was very impressive. In almost all cities every big or small house had its own courtyard and bathroom. Water flowed from the houses to the streets which had drained. These drains were covered with bricks and sometimes with stone slabs. The street drains were equipped with manholes. The quality of domestic bathrooms and drains is remarkable. The drainage system of Harappa (Indus Valley Civilization) is almost unique.






    Social Life of Indus Valley Civilization-


It is not proved that existed any classes or castes. But based upon the mounds it can be assumed that there existed classes and not castes according to the occupation of the people like a peasant, artisans, etc. Also, there were three forms of burial. It is believed that the dead body was burnt.





    Political Life of Indus Valley Civilization-


There is no clear idea about the political life of the Indus Valley Civilization. But no temple has been found at any Harappan site.





    Economic Life of Indus Valley Civilization-


The Indus Valley Civilization of Harappan economy was based on irrigated surplus agriculture, cattle rearing, proficiency in various crafts and brisk trade.





    Religious Life of Indus Valley Civilization-


In Indus Valley Civilization, numerous terracotta figures of women have been found. These indices the worship of Mother Goddess. The Chief male deity, Pashupati Shiva is represented in seals in the sitting posture of a yogi, surrounded by an elephant, a tiger, a rhinoceros, buffalo, and two deers appear at his feet. This god is depicted as having a three-horned head.

Animals were also worshipped in the Harappan times and many of them are represented on seals. The most important of them is the one-horned animal unicorn.




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    Art and Architecture of Indus Valley Civilization-


Indus Valley Civilization or Harappan pots were generally decorated with the designs of trees and circles. The Harappan pottery is bright or dark red and is uniformly sturdy and well baked. Harappan peoples used different types of pottery. Harappan pottery was highly utilitarian in character.




    The script of Indus Valley Civilization-


The Indus Valley Civilization or Harappan Civilization script is yet deciphered. The style is called Boustrophedon.





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